A Linux file system is a standard collection of files on a disk drive or a partition. A segment of memory contains some specific data. In our machine, there can be various partitions of the memory. Data table that creates apparent connections between individual files and groups of files to locate on a disk..

Computer system needs to store data systematically so that some one can easily access the files in frequent time. It stores the data on hard disks (HDD), SSD or some equivalent storage type. There may be below reasons for maintaining the file system:

Why we need an index? Digital storage of a device like hard drive or portable device or a USB drive is not divided into physical divisions that can be used. Particular file can under in a location on the actual media that’s makes a well distance away from another,

To identical file created minutes or seconds apart, and all the parts of a single file might not be contiguous. Not only that, a file’s geographic location on the disk won’t necessarily remain static over time.

You want that your data will be recoverable in a easy access , you will need some kind of good structured index that can consistently and accurately point you to the resources what you looking for.

File system always use index to provide the appearance of an organized set of directories and files within a single disk likely named as partition.

  • Primarily the computer saves data to the RAM storage; it may lose the data if it gets turned off. However, there is non-volatile RAM (Flash RAM and SSD) that is available to maintain the data after the power interruption.
  • Data storage is preferred on hard drives as compared to standard RAM as RAM costs more than disk space. The hard disks costs are dropping gradually comparatively the RAM.

The LINUX file system contains the following sections:

  • The root directory (/)
  • A specific data storage format (EXT3, EXT4, BTRFS, XFS and so on)
  • A partition or logical volume having a particular file system.

Linux File System Structure

Linux file system has a hierarchal file structure as it contains a root directory and its subdirectories. All other directories can be accessed from the root directory. A partition usually has only one file system, but it may have more than one file system.

A file system is designed in a way so that it can manage and provide space for non-volatile storage data. All file systems required a namespace that is a naming and organizational methodology. Once a namespace is described, a Metadata description must be defined for that particular file

Linux File System Features

In Linux, the file system creates a tree structure. All the files are arranged as a tree and its branches. The topmost directory called the root (/) directory. All other directories in Linux can be accessed from the root directory.

  • Specifying paths: Linux does not use the backslash (\) to separate the components; it uses forward slash (/) as an alternative.
  • Partition, Directories, and Drives: Linux does not use drive letters to organize the drive as Windows does.
  • Case Sensitivity: Linux file system is case sensitive. It distinguishes between lowercase and uppercase file names. Such as, there is a difference between test.txt and Test.txt in Linux. This rule is also applied for directories and Linux commands.
  • File Extension : File with some extension like ‘.JPG’, ‘.XLS’ It not necessary that a file should have a file extension. While working with Shell, it creates some problems for the beginners to differentiate between files and directories. If we use the graphical file manager, it symbolizes the files and folders.
  • Hidden files: Linux distinguishes between standard files and hidden files, mostly the configuration files are hidden in Linux OS. Usually, we don’t need to access or read the hidden files. The hidden files in Linux are represented by a dot (.) before the file name (e.g., .ignore).


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